According to prophecy, in ancient books of Asshai  from over five thousand years ago, Azor Ahai is to be reborn again as a champion sent by R'hllor. There will come a day after a long summer when the stars bleed and the cold breath of darkness falls heavy on the world.
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In this dread hour a warrior shall draw from the fire a burning sword. And that sword shall be Lightbringer , the Red Sword of Heroes, and he who clasps it shall be Azor Ahai come again, and the darkness shall flee before him. Melisandre has mentioned the prince that was promised  and Azor Ahai interchangeably, although she tends to use the name Azor Ahai far more often. Salladhor Saan tells Davos Seaworth of the hero's burning sword, Lightbringer. A sign was promised, and now a sign is seen!
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Behold Lightbringer! Azor Ahai has come again! All hail the Warrior of Fire!
Ice Cave Tours in Iceland
All hail the Son of Fire! Some of the central events of English history turn out to have been linked to the Little Ice Age: in , the Spanish Armada was destroyed by an unprecedented Arctic hurricane, and a factor in the Great Fire of London, in , was the ultra-dry summer that succeeded the previous, bitter winter. Fingerprints of the cold period can be found in surprising places.
Why do the most admired violins in the history of music, made by Stradivarius and Guarneri, come from the middle of the Little Ice Age? The most consequential effect of the frigid weather, Blom argues convincingly, was to disrupt the harvest, especially the grain harvest. It led to a fundamental shift in the social order across Europe, and beyond. Grain harvests did not return to their previous levels for a hundred and eighty years. That affected everything about how society worked. Before this moment in European history, society was largely organized along feudal lines.
The bulk of the population consisted of peasants, living on land owned by a lordly overclass. At first, there were panics and uprisings, food riots and rebellions, and a spike in witch trials—because, in a pre-scientific world, the idea that witches were responsible for failing harvests made as much sense as any other explanation.
Over time, however, larger structural shifts emerged. When peasants had no surplus grain, this system collapsed. If local crops were failing, trading at a distance, to bring goods from farther afield, was critical. Money, and the ability to buy and sell with cash or its equivalent, took on a larger role.
Cities with a culture of trade especially benefitted from this shift. Wearing at least three layers will let you easily adjust your clothing to the actual conditions. Do not wear overly heavy clothing as it makes your movements slow and tiring and it is also very uncomfortable when sitting for long hours in the car. Wear a long-sleeved shirt and long johns as a base layer, made from fast drying, breathable fabric. For insulation, wear a warm fleece or a wool sweater along with a down jacket or a warm - but not too heavy - coat. On the bottom, choose comfortable pants.
All of your other layers should be either water-repellent or waterproof. For walking on and inside a glacier safely, you will need crampons. These are always provided by the tour operator. Crampons, however, can only be placed on steady boots, preferably hiking boots. In most cases, hiking boot rental is offered during the booking process. Do not wear high-heeled boots or sneakers because these are not compatible with the crampons.
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You will also need a cap or a beanie as well as a buff, a neck gaiter, or a scarf. Gloves are also very important.
In mid-winter, you may want to enjoy the warmth of some pocket warmers as well. Bring a small day backpack with you where you can pack your camera , some water , and, for the day tours, some snacks as well. Meals are not included in these tours. Ice caves are beautifully photogenic. Getting a nice shot will surely blow up your Instagram or Facebook feed.
Under ideal circumstances, you may shoot the photo of a lifetime that will always to remind you of the most amazing adventure of your life. Photographing an ice cave , however, can be quite challenging as it can be very dark inside. What is not dark for the eyes can be still completely black for the camera.
Naturally, different ice caves have different light conditions which can also change constantly as the length of the daylight changes in Iceland. However, if there is not enough natural light in the cave, they are lit up with reflectors. Generally speaking, photographing inside an ice cave requires similar settings as photographing the Northern Lights or the night sky. Most of the shots will need an exposure that is longer than a second and it can be tricky to focus , so a tripod is a must.
Shooting handheld inside an ice cave can be nearly impossible. As the temperature in the ice caves is very low, we strongly recommend for you to bring a few extra batteries for your camera. Batteries drain very quickly in cold air, especially in dark places where you need long exposures.
For the best picture, we recommended you use a wide-angle lens , as you need to let in as much light as possible and to get as much of the scene into the frame as possible. The classic approach is to take a super wide angle shot towards the bright entrance. A model or a silhouette of a person can make your picture even more interesting as the scale becomes more perceivable and the picture comes alive. For shooting this picture, a remote shutter release or a self-timer function on your camera can be very useful.
Only use auto-focus if there is a good amount of light coming into the cave. Try not to go too high with the ISO because it will make your pictures very grainy. On cheaper cameras, an ISO of over can make your pictures grainy, but of course, more expensive professional cameras can handle much higher ISO settings. You may still be able to take nice photos with a camera held in your hand or even with your phone near the bright entrance or a reflector.
Brace yourself against the wall to keep it steady or place your camera on a large rock or something that will not move. After all, you can be sure that there is no camera that will be able to represent the incredible atmosphere and feeling of being inside a frosty, blue wonderland!
Traveling in Iceland may be one of the most beautiful adventures of your life. Glaciers are forever changing, with cracking surfaces and fragile foundations. They can be quite dangerous for inexperienced visitors. The glacier ice caves could flood within minutes or, specifically in Iceland, they can be filled with poisonous gases due to geothermal activity.
The only ice caves that are safe to visit are those that are properly examined and approved by local glacier guides and authorities. Only licensed tour operators can run tours to the ice caves safely and legally. If you would like to visit an ice cave privately , please contact us and we will be happy to accommodate you. Regardless how experienced a glacier hiker you are, never attempt to venture out on a glacier or approach an ice cave without a licensed local glacier guide who knows the terrain and is properly trained and equipped for these circumstances.
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