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Simply select the store below that is most appropriate to your location. If you are having trouble switching stores, click here to disable the redirection functionality. Haemorrhage is one of the most severe gastrointestinal complications that occur as a result of perforation of Peyer's patches, lymphatic nodules located at the terminal ileum, resulting in bloody diarrhoea. Typhoid fever. Salmonella strains other than S. Paratyphi are referred to as NTS, and are predominantly found in animal reservoirs.
Nontyphoidal salmonellosis. Clinical Infectious Disease. Clinical response and outcome of infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones: a United States foodnet multicenter retrospective cohort study. Agents Chemother. Gastrointestinal complications of NTS infections include cholecystitis, pancreatitis and appendicitis, while the perforation of the terminal ileum has no association with NTS infections Hohmann Hohmann EL.
Infants, young children, elderly people and immunocompromised patients are highly susceptible to NTS infections and develop more severe symptoms than normal individuals Scallan et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States — major pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Salmonella bacteraemia is a condition whereby the bacteria enter the bloodstream after invading the intestinal barrier.
Almost all the serotypes of Salmonella can cause bacteraemia, while S. Dublin and S. Cholearaesuis are two invasive strains that are highly associated with the manifestations of bacteraemia Woods et al. Similar to enteric fever, high fever is the characteristic symptom of bacteraemia, but without the formation of rose spots as observed in patients with enteric fever.
In severe conditions, the immune response triggered by bacteraemia can lead to septic shock, with a high mortality rate. The clinical manifestation of bacteraemia is more commonly seen in NTS infections than in typhoid Salmonella infections. The role of the spv genes in Salmonella pathogenesis. Although the mechanism of the gene to enhance the virulence traits of NTS remains unclear, expression of the gene is required to prolong apoptotic cell death and this may allow the bacteria to persist in the host cells for a longer period Gulig et al.
Molecular analysis of spv virulence genes of the Salmonella virulence plasmids. Mol Microbiol. Other extraintestinal complications include cellulitis, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, endocarditis and meningitis Shimoni et al. Nontyphoid Salmonella bacteremia: age-related differences in clinical presentation, bacteriology, and outcome.
Clinical and pathologic characteristics of nontyphoidal salmonella encephalopathy. The status of chronic carrier is defined as the shedding of bacteria in stools for more than a year after the acute stage of Salmonella infection. Since humans are the only reservoir of typhoid Salmonella , carriers of S. Paratyphi are responsible for the spreading of enteric fever in endemic regions, as the common transmission route is the ingestion of water or food contaminated with the faeces of chronic carriers Bhan et al.
Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state. In contrast, the carrier state of NTS is less frequent, with an occurrence rate of 0.
NTS infections, which cause self-limited illness, are the most common Salmonella infections and occur worldwide. In contrast, enteric fever, caused by typhoid Salmonella , is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate and occurs predominantly in underdeveloped countries Hardy Hardy A.
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Salmonella : a continuing problem. Postgraduate Medical Journal.
In , the incidence of enteric fever was estimated to be 22 million cases resulting in , deaths worldwide, predominantly in underdeveloped countries Crump et al. Enteric fever is endemic in many regions of the African and Asian continents as well as countries such as in Europe, South and Central America, and the Middle East.
The incidence of enteric fever in the USA and some European countries is low, with the total number of Salmonella cases being less than 10 per , annually. Most of the cases reported in these countries are related to travel, with the disease being imported by foreigners or travellers returning from Africa, India or Pakistan Molbak et al.
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Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. Cases of typhoid fever imported into England, Scotland and Wales — Israel has a very low incidence of enteric fever and this has further reduced from 0. However, the pattern of the causative organism reflects an increasing number of cases of S. Paratyphi, with this organism being isolated from Epidemiology and clinical aspects of enteric fever in Israel.
This appears to match the worldwide increase in infection caused by S. Emergence of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A as a major cause of enteric fever in Kathmandu, Nepal. The increase in S. Paratyphi infection raises concern over the effectiveness of the typhoid fever vaccines in use and highlights the need for more extensive epidemiological study of the pathogen. Many Asian countries, including China, India, Vietnam, Pakistan and Indonesia, have high incidence rates of enteric fever, exceeding cases per , population annually.
Compared to other Asian countries, Pakistan and India have the highest incidence rates of A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls.
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The incidence of enteric fever reported worldwide is actually more of an estimate as investigations of enteric fever are usually conducted on large outbreaks while isolated cases are often underreported. In many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, the limited diagnostic resources and proper surveillance tools result in poor characterization of the burden of enteric fever. In endemic regions, enteric fever occurs more frequently in infants, preschool and school-age children. Typhoid fever in children in Africa. Gastroenteritis is the most common Salmonella infection worldwide, accounting for Based on data for — provided by SalmSurv a foodborne disease surveillance network supported by WHO , the most common isolated serotype responsible for NTS infections worldwide was S.
This was followed by S. Typhimurium and S. Web-based surveillance and global Salmonella distribution, — In Africa, S. Enteriditis and S. In contrast to the countries mentioned previously, S. In spite of improvements in hygiene and sanitation, the incidence of NTS infections continues to increase, creating a burden in both industrialized and underdeveloped countries Majowicz et al. Recent trends in the epidemiology of non-typhoid Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance: the Israeli experience and worldwide review.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases.
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Epidemics of invasive Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis and S. Non-typhoidal Salmonella rates in febrile children at sites in five Asian countries. Deaths associated with bacterial pathogens transmitted commonly through food: foodborne diseases active surveillance network FoodNet , — The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Enteriditis, resulting in cases of NTS infections across 16 states. Some common factors associated with the Salmonella outbreaks include incomplete cooking of food products, improper storage and direct contact with raw ingredients Lynch et al.
Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks — United States, — The food products that are predominantly associated with the outbreaks include animal products such as milk, poultry and eggs, as well as food products such as chocolate and peanut butter Table 1. Selected major outbreaks of Salmonella spp. CSV Display Table. Unlike typhoid Salmonella , animals are the major reservoir of NTS. The worldwide incidence rate of NTS infection is high as the strains can be found naturally in the environment and in both domestic and wild animals including cats, dogs, amphibians, reptiles and rodents.
The diversity of possible reservoirs of infection results in significant challenges for public health authorities to control the infections Swanson et al. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium associated with pet rodents. Clonal differences between non-typhoidal Salmonella NTS recovered from children and animals living in close contact in the Gambia. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella strains is a serious health problem worldwide Chiu et al. Food microbiology: an introduction. Since then, the frequency of isolation of Salmonella strains with resistance towards one or more antimicrobial agents has increased in many countries, including the USA, the UK and Saudi Arabia Yoke-Kqueen et al.