Weizenbaum makes the crucial distinction between deciding and choosing. Deciding is a computational activity, something that can ultimately be programmed. Choice, however, is the product of judgment, not calculation. It is the capacity to choose that ultimately makes us human. Comprehensive human judgment is able to include non-mathematical factors, such as emotions.
Judgment can compare apples and oranges, and can do so without quantifying each fruit type and then reductively quantifying each to factors necessary for comparison" Wikipedia article on Joseph Weizenbaum, accessed Because the funding was provided by an unnamed intelligence agency, little of the work was published. Given a large database of images—in effect, a book of mug shots—and a photograph, the problem was to select from the database a small set of records such that one of the image records matched the photograph.
The success of the program could be measured in terms of the ratio of the answer list to the number of records in the database.
Bledsoe a described the following difficulties:. Some other attempts at facial recognition by machine have allowed for little or no variability in these quantities. Yet the method of correlation or pattern matching of unprocessed optical data, which is often used by some researchers, is certain to fail in cases where the variability is great. In particular, the correlation is very low between two pictures of the same person with two different head rotations. From these coordinates, a list of 20 distances, such as width of mouth and width of eyes, pupil to pupil, were computed.
These operators could process about 40 pictures an hour. When building the database, the name of the person in the photograph was associated with the list of computed distances and stored in the computer. In the recognition phase, the set of distances was compared with the corresponding distance for each photograph, yielding a distance between the photograph and the database record.
The closest records are returned. Thus, each set of distances is normalized to represent the face in a frontal orientation. To accomplish this normalization, the program first tries to determine the tilt, the lean, and the rotation. Then, using these angles, the computer undoes the effect of these transformations on the computed distances. To compute these angles, the computer must know the three-dimensional geometry of the head.
Manual Man/Machine Interaction in the Work of Stanley Kubrick
Because the actual heads were unavailable, Bledsoe used a standard head derived from measurements on seven heads. In experiments performed on a database of over photographs, the computer consistently outperformed humans when presented with the same recognition tasks Bledsoe Peter Hart enthusiastically recalled the project with the exclamation, 'It really worked!
Bledsoe , accessed Bledsoe, W. Some Results on Multicategory Patten Recognition. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 13 2 In August M. Davis and T. They indicated that the device had been in use since It is connected to an input channel of a general-purpose computer and also to an oscilloscope display.
The display control multiplexes the stylus position information with computer-generated information in such a way that the oscilloscope display contains a composite of the current pen position represented as a dot and the computer output. In addition, the computer may regenerate meaningful track history on the CRT, so that while the user is writing, it appears that the pen has "ink. There is no apparent loss of ease or speed in writing, printing, constructing arbitrary figures, or even in penning one's signature" pp.
Licklider's book reviewed systems for information storage, organization, and retrieval, use of computers in libraries, and library question-answering systems. In his discussion he was probably the first to raise general questions concerning the transition of the book from exclusively printing on paper to electronic form. He used the word "link" to refer the logical connections that came to be associated with the word " hyperlink. Nelson is also credited with inventing the word hyperlink, though its published origin is less specific:.
In the essay, Bush described a microfilm-based machine the Memex in which one could link any two pages of information into a "trail" of related information, and then scroll back and forth among pages in a trail as if they were on a single microfilm reel. The closest contemporary analogy would be to build a list of bookmarks to topically related Web pages and then allow the user to scroll forward and backward through the list. In a series of books and articles published from through , Nelson transposed Bush's concept of automated cross-referencing into the computer context, made it applicable to specific text strings rather than whole pages, generalized it from a local desk-sized machine to a theoretical worldwide computer network, and advocated the creation of such a network.
Meanwhile, working independently, a team led by Douglas Engelbart with Jeff Rulifson as chief programmer was the first to implement the hyperlink concept for scrolling within a single document , and soon after for connecting between paragraphs within separate documents " Wikipedia article on Hyperlink, accessed It has "powerful answer-parsing and answer-judging commands, graphics and features to stimulate handling student records and statistics by instructors.
Avner and P. Tenczar, January The display terminal nicknamed Kluge was a monochrome oscilloscope figures 1 and 2 , showing the structures in wireframe fashion figures 3 and 4. Three-dimensional effect was achieved by having the structure rotate constantly on the screen.
Technical details of this system were published in Levinthal et al. What could be the full potential of such a set-up was not completely settled at the time, but there was no doubt that it was paving the way for the future. Thus, this is the conclusion of Cyrus Levinthal's description of the system in Scientific American p. It is too early to evaluate the usefulness of the man-computer combination in solving real problems of molecular biology.
It does seems likely, however, that only with this combination can the investigator use his "chemical insight" in an effective way. We already know that we can use the computer to build and display models of large molecules and that this procedure can be very useful in helping us to understand how such molecules function. But it may still be a few years before we have learned just how useful it is for the investigator to be able to interact with the computer while the molecular model is being constructed.
The text of this account can be found here. The branching text could automatically be arranged into menus and a point within a given area could also have an assigned name, called a label, and be accessed later by that name from the screen. Although HES pioneered many modern hypertext concepts, its emphasis was on text formatting and printing.
Film; From Afar, '2001' Looks Like 1968
In June Steven A. His technique for describing a surface was to construct it out of collections of adjacent patches, which had continuity constraints that would allow surfaces to have curvature which was expected by the designer. Each patch was defined by four boundary curves, and a set of "blending functions" that defined how the interior was constructed out of interpolated values of the boundaries" Carlson , A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation , accessed On June 27, electrical engineer and inventor Douglas C.
Perhaps the star of the film was the HAL computer. HAL is usually represented only as his television camera "eyes" that can be seen throughout the Discovery spaceship HAL is depicted as being capable not only of speech recognition, facial recognition, and natural language processing, but also lip reading, art appreciation, interpreting emotions, expressing emotions, reasoning, and chess, in addition to maintaining all systems on an interplanetary voyage.
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He is, however, portrayed with a soft voice and a conversational manner. This is in contrast to the human astronauts, who speak in terse monotone, as do all other actors in the film" Wikipedia article on HAL , accessed As the idea developed, it was decided that the story for the film was to be loosely based on Clarke's short story "The Sentinel" , written in as an entry in a BBC short story competition.
Originally, Clarke was going to write the screenplay for the film, but Kubrick suggested during one of their brainstorming meetings that before beginning on the actual script, they should let their imaginations soar free by writing a novel first, which the film would be based on upon its completion. Thus I rewrote some sections after seeing the movie rushes -- a rather expensive method of literary creation, which few other authors can have enjoyed.
Clarke, accessed The Society enabled relatively isolated artists working with computers in a variety of fields to meet and exchange information. It also ran practical courses, conferences and exhibitions. The exhibition showcased innovative work with computers across a broad range of disciplines, including sculpture, graphics, music, film, architecture, poetry, theatre and dance.
CAS founder John Lansdown, for example, designed and organised a dance performance that was choreographed entirely by the computer and performed by members of the Royal Ballet School. The multi-media approach of exhibitions such as Event One greatly influenced younger artists and designers emerging at this time. Many of these artists were rebelling against the traditional fine art hierarchies of the time, and went on to work in the new fields of computer, digital, and video art as a result.
CAS members were remarkably ahead of their time in recognising the long term impact that the computer would have on society, and in providing services to those already working creatively with the computer.
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By CAS had members in 17 countries. In the Computer Arts Society donated its collection of original computer art to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, which maintains one of the world's largest and most significant collections of computer art. In American psychologist and computer scientist J.
An OLIVER is, or will be when there is one, an 'on-line interactive vicarious expediter and responder,' a complex of computer programs and data that resides within the network and acts on behalf of its principal, taking care of many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the demanding world. But no! It will know who your friends are, your mere acquiantances.