PDF MySQL Admin Cookbook LITE: Replication and Indexing

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A Bit About Database Management Systems

Retrieved 9 December Code Futures. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 19 January Amazon Web Services. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 3 March Retrieved 26 March Replicating more than one database In case you want to replicate more than one schema, just add their names to the commands shown below. To replicate all of them, just leave out any database name from the command line. How to do it At the operating system level, connect to the master machine and open the MySQL configuration file with a text editor.

Usually it is called my. The log-bin setting need not have a value, but can stand alone as well. Restart the master server if you need to modify the configuration.

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Restart the slave server. How it works Some of the instructions discussed in the previous section are to make sure that both master and slave are configured with different server-id settings. This is of paramount importance for a successful replication setup. If you fail to provide unique server-id values to all your server instances, you might see strange replication errors that are hard to debug. Moreover, the master must be configured to write binlogs—a record of all statements manipulating data this is what the slaves will receive.

Before taking a full content dump of the sakila demo database, we create a user account for the slaves to use. Notice the provided parameters --master-data and --single-transaction. The former is needed to have mysqldump include information about the precise moment the dump was created in the resulting output. The latter parameter is important when using InnoDB tables, because only then will the dump be created based on a transactional snapshot of the data.

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Without it, statements changing data while the tool was running could lead to an inconsistent dump. As the sakila database is not very big, you should not see any problems. However, if you apply this recipe to larger databases, make sure you send the data to a volume with sufficient free disk space—the SQL dump can become quite large.

To save space here, you may optionally pipe the output through gzip or bzip2 at the cost of a higher CPU load on both the master and the slaves, because they will need to unpack the dump before they can load it, of course. This is what --master-data is for. Once the file is imported on a slave, it will know at which point in time well, rather at which binlog position this dump was taken. Everything that happened on the master after that needs to be replicated. Finally, we configure that slave to use the credentials set up on the master before to connect and then start the replication.

From here on the slave will go ahead and record all SQL statements sent from the master, store them in its relay logs, and then execute them against the local data set. This recipe is very important because the following recipes are based on this! So in case you have not fully understood the above steps yet, we recommend you go through them again, before trying out more complicated setups.

See also f Avoiding duplicate server IDs 13 Replication Setting up automatically updated slaves of a selection of tables based on a SQL dump Often you might not need to replicate everything, but only a subset of tables in a database. MySQL allows exercising fine-grained control over what to replicate and what to ignore. Unfortunately, the configuration settings are not as obvious as they might seem at first glance.

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In this recipe, you will see how to replicate only a few select tables from a database. Getting ready The setup for this recipe is the same as for the previous one, Setting up automatically updated slaves of a server based on a SQL dump. Only the configuration options on the slave need to be changed.

So instead of repeating everything here, we just present the important differences. Follow the steps of the previous recipe up to the point where the mysqldump tool is used to extract the initial data set from the master. Go on with the steps of the previous recipe up to the point where it tells you to edit the slave machine's configuration.

Chapter 1 How it works The SQL dump file taken on the master is limited to three tables: address, country, and city. The slave's configuration also tells it to only execute statements coming from the master that targets one of these three tables replicate-do-table directives , while overtly ignoring any other changes in the sakila database replicate-wild-ignoretable. Even though all other statements are still retrieved from the master and stored temporarily in the relay log files on the slave, only those with modifications to one of the three tables explicitly configured are actually run.

The rest are discarded. You can choose any subset of tables, but you need to make sure to take Foreign key relationships between tables into account. If you were to exclude either one of the latter and your storage engine on the slave was InnoDB, replication would break because of Foreign key violations when trying to insert an address, since its dependencies were not fulfilled. MySQL does not help you in this respect; you must make sure to identify all tables and their relationships manually before setting up the replication. There's more In this example, we clearly specified three tables by their full names.

There are more options available, not only to include but also to exclude tables. See the MySQL online manual's chapter Setting up automatically updated slaves using data file copy Even though replication is designed to keep your data in sync, circumstances might require you to set up slaves afresh.

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One such scenario might be severely changing the master data, making replication too expensive. Using a SQL dump to re-initialize the slaves might be too time-consuming, depending on the size of the data set and the power of the slave machines. In cases where master and slave databases are the same size anyway meaning, you do not have filters in place to sync data only partially and if you can afford a downtime on the master database, there is another way of providing slaves with a fresh starting point: copying the master's data files to the slave.

Beware that this approach will lose all data that was changed on the slave alone. So make sure that this is what you want! Depending on the size of your database you will have to judge which method of copying will be the best between the machines. If both are part of a local area network, copying via a shared drive or something like FTP will probably be the fastest way. You might, however, need to resort to other means of data transfer like external hard disks or the like, when only limited bandwidth is available.

Moreover, you will need administrative MySQL user accounts on both sides to execute the necessary statements to control replication. Open the master's configuration file with a text editor. Locate the line controlling the name of the binlog files. It is located in the [mysqld] section and will look similar to this: [mysql] Change the value of that setting to a different name.

mysql tutorial for beginners (6/8) : Indexes

This will cause the master MySQL server to start with a new sequence of binlogs upon its next launch, making a convenient starting point for the replication. Shut down the master database. Navigate to the MySQL data directory. The exact location can be found in the MySQL configuration file. Make sure to find both InnoDB data and log locations. Optionally, copy data and log files to another location locally on the master. This might be faster than copying via network or USB drives, and allows for a quick restart of the master.

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If you do this, use this temporary location to copy the data in the next step. Copy the data to the slave machine. We recommend a temporary target location on the slave because this allows the slave to continue running for the time the copying takes. Unless you want to bring along all the user accounts and privilege information from the master to the slaves, you should exclude the mysql folder from the data directory. You also need not copy the binary logs in this example called master-bin.

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Stop the slave server. You can restart the master once the original data and transaction log files have been copied. Make sure it starts with a new sequence of binlogs called new-master-bin. Write down the names and sizes of InnoDB data and log files you copied to the slave. These will have to be entered into the slave's configuration because, otherwise, InnoDB will not start up.